2017年8月25日 星期五

England’s Mental Health Experiment: Free Talk Therapy英格蘭的免費談話治療實驗 大減心理治療污名

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2017/09/01 第184期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
紐時周報精選 England's Mental Health Experiment: Free Talk Therapy英格蘭的免費談話治療實驗 大減心理治療污名
It Turns Out Money Can Buy (Some) Happiness美國研究:花錢買時間 讓你覺得更幸福
England's Mental Health Experiment: Free Talk Therapy英格蘭的免費談話治療實驗 大減心理治療污名
文/Benedict Carey

England is in the midst of a unique national experiment, the world's most ambitious effort to treat depression, anxiety and other common mental illnesses.

The rapidly growing initiative, which has gotten little publicity outside the country, offers virtually open-ended talk therapy free of charge at clinics throughout the country: in remote farming villages, industrial suburbs, isolated immigrant communities and high-end enclaves. The goal is to eventually create a system of primary care for mental health not just for England but for all of Britain.



At a time when many nations are debating large-scale reforms to mental health care, researchers and policymakers are looking hard at England's experience, sizing up both its popularity and its limitations. Mental health care systems vary widely across the Western world, but none have gone nearly so far to provide open-ended access to talk therapies backed by hard evidence. Experts say the English program is the first broad real-world test of treatments that have been studied mostly in carefully controlled lab conditions.

The demand in the first several years has been so strong it has strained the program's resources. According to the latest figures, the program now screens nearly 1 million people a year, and the number of adults in England who have recently received some mental health treatment has jumped to 1 in 3 from 1 in 4 and is expected to continue to grow. Mental health professionals also say the program has gone a long way to shrink the stigma of psychotherapy in a nation culturally steeped in stoicism.



"You now actually hear young people say, 'I might go and get some therapy for this,'" said Dr. Tim Kendall, clinical director for mental health for the National Health Service. "You'd never, ever hear people in this country say that out in public before."

A recent widely shared video of three popular royals — Prince William, Prince Harry and Kate, Duchess of Cambridge — discussing the importance of mental health care and the princes' struggles after their mother's death is another sign of the country's growing openness about treatment.



The enormous amount of data collected through the program has shown the importance of a quick response after a person's initial call and of a triage-like screening system in deciding a course of treatment. It will potentially help researchers and policymakers around the world to determine which reforms can work — and which most likely will not.








It Turns Out Money Can Buy (Some) Happiness美國研究:花錢買時間 讓你覺得更幸福
文/Niraj Chokshi

It's a question central to daily life: Do you spend money to save time or spend time to save money? Well, if happiness is the goal, you might consider opening that wallet.

That's the takeaway of a study, published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, whose findings suggest that spending money to save time may reduce stress about the limited time in the day, thereby improving happiness.



"People who spent money to buy themselves time, such as by outsourcing disliked tasks, reported greater overall life satisfaction," said Ashley Whillans, an assistant professor at the Harvard Business School and lead author of the study, which was based on a series of surveys from several countries. Researchers did not see the same effect when people used money for material goods.

In one round, Whillans and her colleagues surveyed nearly 4,500 people in the United States, Denmark, Canada and the Netherlands on well-being and timesaving purchases, such as ordering takeout food, taking a cab, hiring household help or paying someone to run an errand. In another round, using a broader definition of such purchases, they surveyed about 1,800 other Americans.

哈佛商學院助理教授、研究報告主要作者艾希莉·韋蘭斯說:「花錢替自己買時間的人,例如將不喜歡的工作外包出去,告知了較高的整體生活滿意度。」 該研究報告是以來自數個國家的一系列調查為基礎。而當人們用錢買實質商品時,研究人員則未見相同效應。


About 28 percent of those in the first round and half in the second reported spending money to save time. In both cases, those who made such purchases reported greater life satisfaction than those who did not.

And it didn't matter if they were rich or poor: People benefited from buying time regardless of where they fell on the income spectrum. (The authors note, though, that may not hold true for the poorest of the poor.)



The surveys established a link between buying time and happiness, but the researchers wanted to see whether one causes the other.

So they conducted an experiment with a few dozen Canadians. First, they provided the participants with $40 on two consecutive weekends to spend, as directed, on either timesaving purchases or material purchases, like board games, fancy wine or clothes. Then, they asked the participants their mood at the end of the day.

As the researchers predicted, spending money to save time appeared to reduce time-related stress and increase well-being, while spending on material goods did not have the same effect.





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