2018年6月11日 星期一

4'33" 聆聽寂靜的聲音

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4'33"  聆聽寂靜的聲音
by Jamie Blackler

John Cage's masterpiece explores the sounds of silence.



  Pieces of music are typically identified by their lyrics, chords, rhythms, and melodies. So what happens when you __1__ all of these elements out of a song? Can it still be considered music? American composer John Cage explored this concept in his avant-garde composition entitled, "4'33."
  Composed in 1952, the song's title __2__ its length: four minutes and 33 seconds. For the song's duration, the performers of "4'33" are __3__ not to play a single note on their instruments. This leaves the audience __4__ in a quiet room—and that's when the magic begins. "4'33" gently forces listeners to confront silence and emptiness. Some people enjoy the silence, while others become __5__ from the lack of noise that they are constantly bombarded by in their everyday lives. In the end, it's impossible to maintain complete silence for long. The ambient sounds of air conditioners humming, birds chirping by a window, or people rustling in their seats come to the forefront. __6__, the background noises of the present moment become the song, making every performance of "4'33" entirely unique.
  This one-of-a-kind song sparked a discussion about the definition of music. Some critics dismissed it as a cheap publicity stunt, while others felt it was a stroke of genius. Cage felt it exemplified his idea that, in life, everything we do is music. This composition also brought the Zen Buddhist concepts of silence and nothingness, __7__ that Cage was deeply interested in, to the classical music stage. Although Cage composed several acclaimed works during his life, he considered "4'33" to be his masterpiece.
1. (A) scatter  (B) swirl  (C) strip  (D) scratch
2. (A) refers to  (B) abides by  (C) figures out  (D) tops off
3. (A) destined  (B) instructed  (C) established  (D) disguised
4. (A) sit  (B) sitting  (C) sits  (D) be sitting
5. (A) versatile  (B) patriotic  (C) ethical  (D) anxious
6. (A) Eventually  (B) Frequently  (C) Obviously  (D) Previously
7. (A) disturbances  (B) vengeances  (C) philosophies  (D) conspiracies


chord n. 和弦
rhythm n. 節奏
avant-garde a. 前衛的
note n. 音符;紙鈔
emptiness n. 空虛
ambient a. 周圍(環境)的
chirp vi.(鳥)鳴叫
rustle vi. 沙沙作響
a stroke of genius  聰明之舉,絕妙的主意
stroke n.(繪畫、寫字的)一筆,一畫
exemplify vt. 舉例說明
nothingness n. 空;無

1. force sb to V  迫使某人(做)……
Mom forced Kevin to clean his room before allowing him to play computer games.

2. the / a lack of...  缺乏……
The company's problems are compounded by a lack of direction.

3. come to the forefront  走到前面;湧現;引人注目
Since Gary has had great success as a lawyer, he has really come to the forefront in politics.

4. dismiss A as B  摒棄 A 視為 B
dismiss vt. 摒棄;解散(部隊)
: dismiss sb from his / her job  開除某人的職位
Mr. Jones dismissed Larry's proposal as unrealistic.
Rachel was dismissed from her job for incompetence.
*incompetence n. 不適任;無能力

1. So what happens when you strip all of these elements out of a song?

a. (A) scatter vt. 使散落,撒
Ben made a huge mess when he scattered his toys all over the place.
(B) swirl vt. 使旋轉,打轉
The strong wind swirled the fallen leaves on the ground.
(C) strip vt. 剝奪;剝去
: strip sb of sth  剝奪某人的某物
The general stripped the soldiers of their medals after they were arrested.
(D) scratch vt.(用爪子)抓;搔
I was playing with the cat when it scratched my face.
b. 根據語意及用法,(C) 項應為正選。

2. Composed in 1952, the song's title refers to its length: four minutes and 33 seconds.
這首曲子作於 1952 年,名稱指的是歌曲長度:四分三十三秒。

a. (A) refer to...  意指/指的是……
When I made that comment, I was referring to what the professor had said in his last lecture.
(B) abide by...  遵守……
: comply with...
= conform to...
It is important to abide by all safety rules in the construction zone.
(C) figure out... / figure... out  弄明白……
Toby couldn't figure out the answer, but at least he tried.
(D) top off... / top... off  為……畫下句點
To top off our trip, we went to a fancy restaurant for dinner.
b. 根據語意,(A) 項應為正選。

3. For the song's duration, the performers of "4'33" are instructed not to play a single note on their instruments.

a. (A) destine vt. 命定,注定
: destined a.(命中)注定要??的
be destined to V / for N  注定……
Asha is destined to become the next hottest designer in the world.
(B) instruct vt. 教導;指示
: instruct sb to V  指示某人做??
Mom instructed me to clean the kitchen after cooking dinner.
(C) establish vt. 建立
: set up...
Mr. Wang is establishing a charity to help the poor.
(D) disguise vt. 假扮
: disguise sb / oneself as...  將某人/自己喬裝成……
Mary disguised herself as a man in order to join the club.
b. 根據語意,(B) 項應為正選。

4. This leaves the audience sitting in a quiet room—and that's when the magic begins.
這讓觀眾坐在安靜的空間裡 ── 而奇妙的事就在此刻發生了。

a. 本題測試 leave 作不完全及物動詞的用法,即 leave 加受詞後,可接現在分詞(表主動概念)或過去分詞(表被動概念)作受詞補語,表「使……處於……(狀態)」:
Anna left Frank waiting in the rain last night.
The traffic accident left us trapped on the highway for a long time.
b. 根據上述及語意,(B) 項應為正選。

5. Some people enjoy the silence, while others become anxious from the lack of noise that they are constantly bombarded by in their everyday lives.

a. (A) versatile a.(物)多用途的;(人)多才多藝的
This makeup kit is so versatile that it is the only one you will ever need.
(B) patriotic a. 愛國的
French people around the world sang La Marseillaise, France's national anthem, with patriotic feeling after the attacks.
*national anthem  國歌
(C) ethical a. 道德的
Scientists believe that clones could benefit mankind in many ways, though there are still some unresolved ethical problems.
*clone n. 複製
(D) anxious a. 焦慮的;渴望的
: be anxious about...  對……感到焦慮/緊張
Julie is anxious about the interview tomorrow.
b. 根據語意,(D) 項應為正選。

6. Eventually, the background noises of the present moment become the song, making every performance of "4'33" entirely unique.

a. (A) eventually adv. 最後,終於
Amy's constant complaints eventually pushed her husband over the edge.
*push sb over the edge  把某人逼到絕境
(B) frequently adv. 經常地,頻繁地
Cindy frequently goes hiking in the woods because she loves being outdoors.
(C) obviously adv. 明顯地
The food tastes a bit sour; obviously it has gone bad.
(D) previously adv. 先前
Tina is now a flight attendant, but she previously worked at a language center.
b. 根據語意,(A) 項應為正選。

7. This composition also brought the Zen Buddhist concepts of silence and nothingness, philosophies that Cage was deeply interested in, to the classical music stage.
這首曲子也將凱吉深感興趣的哲學 ── 禪宗對於無聲和空的概念 ── 融入古典音樂。

a. (A) disturbance n. 干擾
Phone calls in the middle of a movie can be a great disturbance.
(B) vengeance n. 報復,報仇
Heaven's vengeance is slow but sure.
法網恢恢,疏而不漏。── 諺語
(C) philosophy n. 哲學;人生觀
Dan's negative philosophy towards life is one of the reasons he's alone.
(D) conspiracy n. 陰謀
It has recently come to light that an official was implicated in the conspiracy.
*be implicated in...  與……有牽連
b. 根據語意,(C) 項應為正選。

1. masterpiece n. 傑作;名作
That painter is only willing to sell his masterpiece at the price of US$30 million.

2. lyrics n. 歌詞(恆用複數)
The lyrics of that song remind me of my ex-girlfriend.

3. composer n. 作曲家
: compose vt. 作(曲、詩等)
composition n.(音樂、文學)作品
Emily composes poems based on what she has seen in nature.
It took Mozart only a few hours to complete the composition of the sonata.
*sonata n. 奏鳴曲

4. entitle vt. 給……命名;給予資格/權利
: be entitled to N / V  有資格(做)……
In democratic societies, people are entitled to freedom of speech.
*democratic a. 民主的

5. duration n. 期間;持續時間
: for the duration of...  在??的期間
The package includes a free breakfast buffet for the duration of your holiday.

6. instrument n. 樂器
Agnes is good at playing many kinds of musical instruments.

7. confront vt. 面臨
: be confronted with...  面對……;遭遇……
We were confronted with many problems before the project was completed.

8. bombard vt. 轟炸;不斷提出問題
: bombard sb with sth
The audience bombarded the speaker with questions after the two-hour speech.

9. hum vi. 發出嗡嗡聲

10. spark vt. 激發(興趣);引起
Gary's comment sparked another argument.

11. publicity n. 宣傳;名氣;公開
Few attended the concert because of bad publicity.

12. stunt n. 噱頭;特技動作
The audience was amazed by the spectacular stunts performed in the show.

13. acclaimed a. 受到讚揚的
Andrew's latest album was an acclaimed masterpiece.




  這首曲子作於 1952 年,名稱指的是歌曲長度:四分三十三秒。在這首曲子的演奏期間,演奏「四分三十三秒」的音樂家被指示不要用他們的樂器演奏出任何一個音符。這讓觀眾坐在安靜的空間裡 ── 而奇妙的事就在此刻發生了。「四分三十三秒」溫和地迫使聽眾面對寂靜與空虛。有些人享受寂靜,有些人則對於少了在日常生活中不停轟炸他們的噪音而感到焦慮不安。最後,不可能保持完全沉默太久。空調嗡嗡聲、窗外鳥鳴聲或人們在座位上發出的窸窣聲響等環境音越來越清晰。最終,當下的背景噪音變成了歌曲,使得每一次「四分三十三秒」的演奏全然獨一無二。
  這首絕無僅有的曲子激發了對於音樂定義的討論。有些評論家對此嗤之以鼻,稱它為低俗的宣傳噱頭,有些人則認為它是神來之筆。凱吉認為它闡述了他的想法:生活中,我們從事的一切都是音樂。這首曲子也將凱吉深感興趣的哲學 ── 禪宗對於無聲和空的概念 ── 融入古典音樂。雖然凱吉在一生中也作了數首頗受讚譽的曲子,但他認為「四分三十三秒」是他的傑作。
1. C 2. A 3. B 4. B 5. D 6. A 7. C




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